Sign in to view read count Many names have been given to the s: It was a decade fuelled by innovation and change; a time of movement:
Introduction On a sunny day in early MarchWarren G. Harding took the oath to become the twenty-ninth president of the United States. Then, between andnearly seven hundred thousand Americans died in a flu epidemic that hit nearly 20 percent of the American population.
Waves of labor strikes, meanwhile, hit soon after the war. Anarchists and others sent more than thirty bombs through the mail on May 1, After wartime controls fell, the economy tanked and national unemployment hit 20 percent.
Harding could hardly deliver the peace that he promised, but his message nevertheless resonated among a populace wracked by instability. The mass production and consumption of automobiles, household appliances, film, and radio fueled a new economy and new standards of living.
New mass entertainment introduced talking films and jazz while sexual and social restraints loosened. The s were a decade of conflict and tension. Republican White House, To deliver on his promises of stability and prosperity, Harding signed legislation to restore a high protective tariff and dismantled the last wartime controls over industry.
A sour postwar economy led elites to raise the specter of the Russian Revolution and sideline not just the various American socialist and anarchist organizations but nearly all union activism.
During the s, the labor movement suffered a sharp decline in memberships. Workers lost not only bargaining power but also the support of courts, politicians, and, in large measure, the American public.
For instance, Henry C. Herbert Hoover, the popular head and administrator of the wartime Food Administration and a self-made millionaire, was made secretary of commerce.
To satisfy business interests, the conservative businessman Andrew Mellon became secretary of the treasury. Known as the Teapot Dome scandal named after the nearby rock formation that resembled a teapotinterior secretary Albert Fall and navy secretary Edwin Denby were eventually convicted and sent to jail.
But then, in AugustHarding died suddenly of a heart attack and Vice President Calvin Coolidge ascended to the highest office in the land.
Congress, for instance, had already begun to reduce taxes on the wealthy from wartime levels of 66 percent to 20 percent, which Coolidge championed. The s, for instance, represented a time of great activism among American women, who had won the vote with the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment in Female voters, like their male counterparts, pursued many interests.
Concerned about squalor, poverty, and domestic violence, women had already lent their efforts to prohibition, which went into effect under the Eighteenth Amendment in January After that point, alcohol could no longer be manufactured or sold.
Other reformers urged government action to ameliorate high mortality rates among infants and children, provide federal aid for education, and ensure peace and disarmament.
They organized private events, like the tea party pictured here, and public campaigning, such as the introduction of the Equal Rights Amendment to Congress, as they continued the struggle for equality. National politics in the s were dominated by the Republican Party, which held not only the presidency but both houses of Congress as well.
In a note passed to American reporters, Coolidge announced his decision not to run in the presidential election of Republicans nominated Herbert Hoover, an orphan from Iowa who graduated from Stanford, became wealthy as a mining engineer, and won a deserved reputation as a humanitarian for his relief efforts in famine-struck, war-torn Europe.
Running against Hoover was Democrat Alfred E. Smith, the four-time governor of New York and the son of Irish immigrants. Hoover focused on economic growth and prosperity.
He had served as secretary of commerce under Harding and Coolidge and claimed credit for the sustained growth seen during the s; Hoover claimed in that America had never been closer to eliminating poverty. Many Protestant ministers preached against Smith and warned that he would be enthralled to the pope.
Hoover won in a landslide. Even several solidly Democratic southern states pulled the lever for a Republican for the first time since Reconstruction. The book, which was based on one of the earliest surveys of American buying habits, advised manufacturers and advertisers how to capture the purchasing power of women, who, according to Frederick, accounted for 90 percent of household expenditures.
The consumer change she studied had resulted from the industrial expansion of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. With the discovery of new energy sources and manufacturing technologies, industrial output flooded the market with a range of consumer products such as ready-to-wear clothing, convenience foods, and home appliances.
By the end of the nineteenth century, output had risen so dramatically that many contemporaries feared supply had outpaced demand and that the nation would soon face the devastating financial consequences of overproduction.
American businessmen attempted to avoid this catastrophe by developing new merchandising and marketing strategies that transformed distribution and stimulated a new culture of consumer desire.I.
Introduction. On a sunny day in early March , Warren G. Harding took the oath to become the twenty-ninth president of the United States. He had won a landslide election by promising a “return to normalcy.” “Our supreme task is the resumption of our onward, normal way,” he declared in his inaugural address.
Fitzgerald was the most famous chronicler of s America, an era that he dubbed “the Jazz Age.” Written in , The Great Gatsby is one of the greatest literary documents of this period, in which the American economy soared, bringing unprecedented levels of prosperity to the nation.
In this course we will read three genres in American literature: short stories, poems, and a novel.
Edgar Allan Poe, Kate Chopin, Eudora Welty, and Kurt Vonnegut will introduce us to Gothic Romanticism, turn of the (nineteenth) century feminism, racial discrimination during the segregation era, and a dystopian view on equality. Thursday 11th pfmlures.com new £million access road is now open.
Built specifically to make access to Chalgrave Manor easier from both the A5 and M1, you can now leave the M1 at the new 11a Junction and be enjoying a bacon butty in minutes, instead of queuing behind buses, lorries and the school run in Toddington.
Explore our collection of new building sets including LEGO Harry Potter and more. Even so, like Nick, Fitzgerald saw through the glitter of the Jazz Age to the moral emptiness and hypocrisy beneath, and part of him longed for this absent moral centre.
In many ways, 'The Great Gatsby' represents Fitzgerald's attempt to confront his conflicting feelings about the Jazz Age.