A tale of two systems Nic Spaull 31 August Nic Spaull says despite the equalisation of access and expenditure outcomes are still wildly divergent In South Africa today, almost everyone has an opinion about education and schooling.
November 1, DOI: Adolescent pregnancy, birth, abortion and sexually transmitted disease STD rates are much higher in the United States than in most other developed countries. Government statistics or nationally representative survey data were supplemented with data collected by private organizations or for regional or local populations to conduct studies of adolescent births, abortions, sexual activity and contraceptive use in Canada, the United States, Sweden, France and Great Britain.
A lower proportion of teenage pregnancies are resolved through abortion in the United States than in the other countries; however, because of their high pregnancy rate, U.
The age of sexual debut varies little across countries, yet American teenagers are the most likely to have multiple partners. A greater proportion of U. Data on contraceptive use are more important than data on sexual activity in explaining variation in levels of adolescent pregnancy and childbearing among the five developed countries; however, the higher level of multiple sexual partnership among American teenagers may help explain their higher STD rates.
Family Planning Perspectives,33 5: Large differences in adolescent pregnancy rates were also identified in the early s in a comparative study of developed countries.
Building on this body of information and using the most recent data available, we address the following questions: How large are cross-country differences in pregnancy, birth and abortion rates, and to what extent are current differences associated with variation across countries in sexual behavior and contraceptive use?
These results are part of a large-scale investigation that examined reasons for the wide variation in teenage pregnancy and birth rates among five developed countries: All of these factors Compare and contrast on two different countries likely to affect adolescent reproductive behavior.
In addition to having a higher adolescent pregnancy rate, the United States has higher rates of sexually transmitted diseases STDs among adolescents than most other developed countries. The annual incidence of gonorrhea among all U. Large differences in pregnancy and STD rates may be due to differences in the proportion of adolescent women who are sexually active and, therefore, are at risk of pregnancy and infection.
Alternatively, they may be related to variation among sexually active adolescent women in the steps that they take to prevent pregnancy and STD infection, including their use of contraceptives, their choice of method and the effectiveness of their method use.
While we do not have information on all of these measures, some information is available to help us assess variation in the two key factors of sexual activity and method use across countries. Data and Methodology Case Studies The design of this collaborative study was to carry out in-depth case studies in five countries.
To maximize comparability, we worked with a research team in each of the five study countries who followed a common outline and approach in gathering information and in preparing a report on their country. Each report included a comparable set of tables on adolescent sexual behavior, contraceptive use, and birth, abortion and pregnancy rates, broken down by available socioeconomic measures.
The collaborative process included two workshops and field visits by the study-team leaders to each of the focus countries. This article synthesizes key findings from the five country case-study reports regarding adolescent pregnancy, birth and abortion rates, and sexual and contraceptive behavior.
Birth data were obtained from published vital statistics reports and from unpublished government data provided by special request to the study teams. Data on births are close to completely reported for these five developed countries, which all have long-established birth registration systems.
Data on the number of abortions occurring to adolescents were also obtained from government statistical agencies. Abortion is legal on broad grounds in all five countries, and reporting of all procedures is required in Canada, France, Great Britain and Sweden and in most U.
Reporting of abortion procedures is believed to be nearly complete in Canada, Great Britain and Sweden. Rates are calculated as the number of events for example, births per 1, women aged per year.
The abortion ratio is calculated as abortions per pregnancies births plus abortions in a given year. To obtain comparable rates for the five study countries, it was necessary to adjust the data from France, where events are reported according to the age that the woman would attain during the calendar year in which the event birth or abortion occurred, rather than according to her age in completed years.
We present the adjusted rates in order to facilitate comparison with the other case-study countries. Data on these topics come from the most recent surveys that interviewed adolescents on sexual and reproductive behaviors.
Table 1 lists the main surveys used for each country and the variables available from each survey. Countries vary in coverage of the adolescent age-group, with some including all year-olds and others only younger or older teenagers.
Not all surveys obtained information on all the main aspects of sexual and reproductive behavior. Surveys in the United States and Great Britain collected the largest range of measures of sexual and reproductive behavior; coverage was much more uneven in the other three countries.
Data on age at first intercourse and age at first birth were available from at least one survey for all five countries.
Data on contraceptive use at first intercourse were available only for younger teenagers year-olds in France and for year-olds from a small sample survey in Sweden, but were not available for Canada.
A measure of recent contraceptive use either current use or use at last intercourse was available for all five countries.
In the case of France, data on younger teenagers are from the Survey of Sexual Behavior of Young People, and data for older teenagers are from the Survey on Sexual Behavior.
In the case of Sweden, national data were available only for teenagers agedand data for year-olds were available only from a small sample survey. We used two methods when dealing with missing data.A powerful video helps students in grades 3 and up reflect on their lives of affluence when compared to children in other parts of the world.
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Congo-Brazzaville. Our flying time to Brazzaville from Kinshasa will be 4 minutes at an altitude of 8, feet. As I sit on an Ethiopian Airlines Boeing wide-body jet with over other people, I wonder about the sanity of taking a 4 minute flight between the two closest capital cities in the world.
Check out Constitute to read, search, and compare the world’s constitutions! Congo-Brazzaville. Our flying time to Brazzaville from Kinshasa will be 4 minutes at an altitude of 8, feet.
As I sit on an Ethiopian Airlines Boeing wide-body jet with over other people, I wonder about the sanity of taking a 4 minute flight between the two closest capital cities in the world.
A graphic organizer helps students compare and contrast two neighboring countries.